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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

6. Our last universal common ancestor gets a makeover

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He failed to do so and Presti smartly moved on while he could still recoup some value.
La La Land producer Jordan Horowitz returned to the microphone after being told about the mix up and said 'Moonlight won Best Picture' and insisting that 'this is not a joke'.
The Beijing Tourism Development Commission noted that the country's battle with pollution is another obstacle cities face in attracting inbound tourists.

Mrs. May’s government proposed a rule that would publicly shame employers who hired foreign workers. And her first major speech was full of barbs directed against multiculturalism, including a jab against people who claimed to be “citizens of the world,” whom she called “citizens of nowhere.”
在美国股市整体被“踩下刹车”的情况下,特斯拉的股价还在一路狂飙。自今年年初至今,其股价已经上涨了80%,目前每股约262美元,接近该公司有史以来的最高值,市值达到320亿美元。
Well, what you do makes me cry at night. You grown ups say you love us. I challenge you, please make your actions reflect your words. Thank you for listening. 然而,你们所做的事让我在夜晚哭泣,你们成年人说你们爱我们,我不会再相信了,因为只有行动和语言的合一,才是找回信任和未来的唯一方法!谢谢!

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

11月 土地市场新规则问世

1.It wasn’t me! – Because some things just aren’t worth taking credit for。
James Bond Themes 4. "Thunderball" by Tom Jones
加快改善生态环境特别是空气质量,是人民群众的迫切愿望,是可持续发展的内在要求。必须科学施策、标本兼治、铁腕治理,努力向人民群众交出合格答卷。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Among French schools, Toulouse Business School made the best progress, up 14 places, after featuring in the Executive MBA ranking for the first time.
A 9.1-percent drop in the annual average density of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was seen in 74 major cities.
研究显示,通过短信获取重置码、备选邮箱来恢复登陆的有效性分别为81%、75%。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Consumer Electronics Show
  • 梦湖:一个传统家居企业的互联网思维
  • Wealthy Chinese bought at least seven overseas islands in 2014.
  • 报告建议整顿房地产中介秩序 建立中介信用档案
  • 贵阳扫黑除恶剑指楼市“黑中介” 市民发现涉黑涉恶线索可举报
  • 单词immunity 联想记忆:
    A historically jittery commodity, crude oil has seen calm prices for three years, and one big factor has been helping smooth the wrinkles: U.S. shale oil.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 房企黑名单呼之欲出 失信者可被限制拍地, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

楼市调控下郑州二手房市场普遍降温:半个月只有两组人看房

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

山西太原再被住建部点名整治 商品房优惠力度或加大

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 黑莓在周三下午的一份声明中表示:“黑莓尚未与三星进行过任何潜在的收购谈判。黑莓的方针是不对谣言和揣测加以评论,因此我们也不会对此做出进一步说明。”
    Over the past 10 years, the value of the top 100 brands has more than doubled — increasing by 133 per cent. That value (see box on page 3 for methodology) is calculated in terms of financial measures such as revenues and profitability combined with surveys of how consumers view brands.
  • n. 初次登场,首次露面 v. 初次登场
    开发活动也处于白热化。GitHub网站上的贡献者图标显示,2014年11月,对比特币主码的贡献总量处于2012年春季以来的最高值。此外,就被“分叉”的次数而言,比特币在GitHub上90多万储存库中名列第31位,“分叉”基本是指提议或正在对核心代码进行的改动。换言之,对于开发者来说,比特币风头正劲。比特币公司目前公布的空缺职位的数量,也突显了开发者的兴趣。跟踪该趋势的Bitcoin Pulse称,如今,此类空缺职位数高达105个,接近九月137个的历史最高值。
    我经常和陌生人说话
    Technology and telecoms are on the up as are some fast food companies, including Starbucks, which BrandZ puts in this category, and McDonald's, whose brand value is risen by nine per cent even though its ranking is unchanged.
    “Someone resigned via a video conference call.”

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 国家统计局新闻发言人就工业企业利润数据有关问题接受采访
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 2022年全球水性涂料市场预计将达1461.1亿美元

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

你一直感到压力很大
越南昆岛——越南昆岛曾是臭名昭著的昆岛监狱所在地,由16座独立的小岛组成;现在,它的美景及海鲜正变得越来越有名气。
在屏幕前对女主人公大喊“不要在深夜独自下楼”,不再是徒劳无用的了。在这款互动式惊悚游戏中,玩家可以控制游戏人物的行动。游戏的剧情由电影制片人拉里o法森顿和格拉哈姆o雷兹尼克与游戏开发商Supermassive Games精心打造。故事中,八位好友被困在遥远的山区度假村,还有一名不受限制的精神病人。游戏群星云集,其中包含《神盾局特工》(Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D)的演员布雷特o道顿,美剧《纳什维尔》(Nashville)的演员海顿o潘妮蒂尔和《极品飞车》(Need for Speed)的演员拉米o马雷克。玩家将控制各个角色探索这个恐怖的世界,试图在黎明到来时存活下来。没有人是安全的。在游戏中,每一个决定都会导致不同的结果。游戏剧本长达一千余页,拥有数百个不同结局等待玩家发掘。蝴蝶效应使得游戏不会有相同的剧情,而唯一不变的是,这款游戏十分惊悚。不要独自一人或是在深夜里尝试它。
The first wearable computer glasses were made by Edward Thorp and Claude Shannon in 1961. In 1968, Ivan Sutherland made the "Sword of Damocles." It was the first head-mounted computer display and an early variant of all wearable computer glasses we have today. In 1980, Steve Mann, known today as the father of wearable computing, made the "WearComp", a pair of tech-enhanced glasses that was capable of communicating wirelessly with other computers and could share videos. He continued to work on the glasses over the years, and by 1999, he had come up with a pair of glasses that looked like Google Glass, or rather, that Google Glass looks like. He called it the "EyeTap."
精算师的工作是对风险给出一个经济数值。例如,飓风摧毁一幢临海别墅的可能性,或某养老制度的长期负债。CareerCast.com的出版人托尼李(Tony Lee)说,在一个充满各种自然和人为风险的世界,精算行业正蓬勃发展。他还说,精算师人才目前有很大缺口,所以其薪资还在不断上涨。(据美国劳工部统计,2010年精算师的薪资中值为87,650美元。)
['depjuti]
Russia and Nato have both called for a de-escalation of the Turkey-Netherlands row.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 但是更让人兴奋的是,魔术师约翰逊是一个人脉广泛且备受尊敬的名人堂球员,他看起来也能知人善任,新经理罗布-佩林卡是一个老谋深算的交易者,他在联盟人脉也很广。
  • 一线城市:房价涨幅创新高 利润率却持续走低
  • 郭晶晶与霍启刚(香港近代富豪霍英东的孙子)的秘密恋情已经引起了全民的想象,人们似乎在关注运动员赛场表现之余,也愈加关心起他们的私人生活了。
    促进外贸继续回稳向好。
  • 城中村里的房屋半夜“长高”
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 北京2016年受理外籍人士及其家属永久居留申请较2015年增长426%。
    冲击奖项:最佳电影提名应该可以肯定。参演《至暗时刻》的加里奥德曼是最佳男主角的最热人选,如果说有谁能击败他的话,那可能就是克莱门特了。
  • 5.匈牙利德布勒森
    We’ve all had them: bosses and managers who make our work lives terrible and couldn’t manage a stack of paper clips, let alone a team of employees. I’ve written about the traits that make for bad bosses before, and in that article, a thoughtful commenter came up with his own list of what makes a good boss。
  • 《为奴十二年》导演史蒂夫?麦奎因(Steve McQueen)在登台领奖时说:我有点吓到了。然后他微微耸肩,引用片中福音歌曲的歌词,说了句“翻涌吧,约旦河,翻涌吧”("Roll, Jordan, roll")。
    12306.cn, China's official website for purchasing railway tickets, has become the largest of this kind in the world, with combined sales reaching 3.5 billion in 2017.
  • vt. 买,购买
    只跟那些能凸显你聪明的人做朋友,哪怕他们觉得你坏坏哒。
    后来,通用汽车在1958年设计出一款无人驾驶汽车,其原理是:由线圈感知道路中所嵌入电线的交流电信号,并相应地调整方向盘。然而汽车确实能自主驾驶,但并不能称为第一辆全自动驾驶汽车,因为它必须依赖嵌在地面的电线。在日本的筑波机械工程实验室,津川和他的几个同事发明了世界上第一辆自动驾驶汽车。然而,德国工程师恩斯特·迪克斯被称为无人驾驶汽车的先驱。1987年,他发明的"极速",时速超过90千米(56英里/小时),行驶了大约20千米(12分钟)。7年后,他发明的VaMP,不但可以识别道路标记,而且能定位自己在车道内的位置,还能勘测其他车辆,甚至能判断何时该变道。一年后,他和他的团队发明的自动驾驶汽车,从德国行驶到丹麦,最高时速为180千米(111英里/小时)。整段旅程中,仅有5%左右的路程是人为驾驶。
  • But Huy Vo, a senior specialist in public relations at Hawaiian, said the short flights, which make up half the airline’s routes, aren’t all that easy to operate. “Our geographic location certainly does give us an advantage, as well as our short-haul routes, ” Vo said. “However, the short-haul routes are the hardest to keep punctual, because the hops are very short, with brief ground time between flights, so any delay is difficult to make up.
    For decades, the language of white identity has only existed in the context of white supremacy. When that became taboo, it left white identity politics without a vocabulary.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 专家:圆大学生安居梦没错 可缴公积金谁买单? shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

家居业瞄向新三板 上市后仍恐面临融资难

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

韩国LED照明产业大打低价“流血战” 中国低价产品“横扫市场”

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

十大城市住宅均价涨幅继续扩大 深圳涨幅居首

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

9月 “金九银十”恢复平静

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Others are Ouyeel, a unit of Shanghai Baosteel Group that provides financing for steel traders; and Small Entrepreneur, part of China Merchants Bank — the country’s sixth-largest lender — which focuses on wealth management.
  • 伦敦商学院在所有这5项排名上表现强劲。其所有课程都跻身欧洲前十,包括全日制MBA课程排名第二,合办EMBA(与美国哥伦比亚商学院(Columbia Business School)合办)和定制高管教育课程均排名第四。
  • 去库存不仅是卖房子 多重因素需楼市良性发展

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • v. 投,掷,抛,铸造,丢弃,指定演员,加起来,投射(目
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • A Florida teen is causing strangers to freeze and stare because of her uncanny likeness to Queen Elsa from the Disney movie Frozen.
    Dealers: Car dealers work toward reducing the paperwork involved in buying a car and the hours it takes to fill it out. That will give them more time to devote to upselling add-ons such as extended warranties, paint and fabric protection, and rust-proofing.
    Google has now said it won't make him pay the fee.
  • 狼和狗有何不同?

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 8.Russia
  • 下月你的工资迎来4大好消息
  • 阿里巴巴旗下品牌淘宝位居第二,品牌价值429亿美元,超过了中国移动、百度和中国工商银行。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 中国18家建材企业在境外投资金额46亿美元
  • Household substance abuse
  • 业主心态出现变化 北京部分二手房出现降价
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

城市扩容提质更有“颜值” 惠州加快迈向优质生活圈

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 猴年家居行业关注四件大事
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 南京一处楼盘隐瞒限购政策 诱导市民交定金
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

To ease women's concerns following the implementation of the two-child policy, the country should put in place more explicit regulations banning discrimination against women. These could include requiring companies to have a certain percentage of female employees, as well as tax cuts or other preferential measures to encourage employers to effectively implement the extended maternity leave regulation for female workers.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

“That’s the first time we’ve seen that,” said Thomas Karl, director of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s national centres for environmental information.
The Chinese mainland had a population of 1.37 billion, an increase of 33.77 million people over the census taken in 2010, meaning the annual growth rate was 0.5 percent.
Included will be messages about smoking causing cancer and women who give the charmer a run for his money as 'little twists' have been added to make the story suitable for the modern reader.
支持:美国国家评论协会将最佳电影、最佳男主角和最佳女主角奖颁给了这部电影。
宣布的
Andrew Bargery, campus and schools engagement leader at PwC, says Teach First graduates stand out: “They have already worked in a professional envir-onment and have professional maturity and are good at building relationships.”
本地社交媒体广告,即那些恰好出现在你的Twitter和Facebook信息流之中的广告,在2013年爆炸式增长。2014年,无论你爱也好,恨也罢,这类广告的规模只会变得越来越大。,尽管听起来有点让人毛骨悚然,但特定位置定位技术预计将在来年出现显著改进。Twitter刚刚推出了一项面向特定邮政编码区域发送有偿消息的功能。比如,当你走进一个社区,当地酒吧、干洗店和麦当劳(McDonald's)发布的“推广消息”就会突然闪现在你的Twitter信息流之中。自2011年来,Facebook一直在采用这种“地理围栏”技术。它能够让商家招揽临近的客户,这些客户实际上可能也想获得提供特别优惠和特价商品的广告信息。好处是,你可以获得更多相关的广告和推销信息。缺点同样是,更多的广告。
福布斯杂志认为,特朗普净资产的下降,主要是由于曼哈顿市中心房地产市场的疲软。
History will look back on 2012 as the year when China anointed its "fifth generation" of leaders and shifted to a slower growth trajectory, writes Yukon Huang. This transition will take place against a backdrop of daunting internal challenges — increasing social unrest, widening income disparities and both ecological and man-made disasters — and of escalating external tensions, stemming from America's "pivot" to Asia and simmering regional worries about China's economic rise.
除了深圳、广州和北京,上海也是毕业生就业找工作最受欢迎的城市。此外,中部和西部的省会城市也是毕业生就业的首选之地。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

物流地产 房企争相布局的下一个战场

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 2.SpaceX demonstrates a big step towards fully reusable space craft
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 如果答案是“是”,那么也许你是D型人格的人。
  • 楼市打响去库存歼灭战 区域差异需定向发力
  • 福布斯杂志本周二发布全球收入最高女星排行榜,《饥饿游戏》女星詹妮弗-劳伦斯连续第二年蝉联榜首,收入约为4600万美元。排名第二的是著名美国谐星梅丽莎?麦卡西。
  • 阿里巴巴跨境电商打通“网上丝绸之路”
  • They also arrived 40 minutes late for the official welcome and were running late to an event in Vancouver, too.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 人民日报:房地产行业需警惕新一轮库存增长风险
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
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  • What dangers does the Fed present to EMs today? One of the biggest risks, says Mr Koepke, is that it might “get behind the curve” and delay raising rates for too long. This would result not only in a surprisingly big hike when it came, but also a higher terminal interest rate than would otherwise be the case.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

新房上保险 业主可索赔

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